Gipsies GIFs Cliparts
The Romani people are also known by a variety of other names, in English as gypsies or gipsies, and Roma, in Greek as (gftoi) or (tsiggnoi), in Central and Eastern Europe as Tsingani (and variants), in France as gitans besides the dated bohmiens, manouches, in Italy as zngari and gitani, in Spain as gitanos, and in Portugal as ciganos. Self-designation also varies: In Central and Eastern Europe, Roma is common. The Romani of England call themselves (in Angloromani) Romanichal, those of Scandinavia (in Scandinavian romanidialect) Romanisl. In German-speaking Europe, the self-designation is Sinti, in France Manush, while the groups of Spain, Wales and Finland use Kalo/Kale (from kalo meaning 'black' in Romani language). There are numerous subgroups and clans with their own self-designations, such as the Kalderash, Machvaya, Boyash, Lovari, Modyar, Xoraxai, Lutari, etc. In the English language (according to OED), Rom is a noun (with the plural Rom or Roms) and an adjective, while Romany is also a noun (with the plural Romanies) and an adjective. Both Rom and Romany have been in use in English since the 19th century as an alternative for Gypsy. Romany is also spelled Romani, or Rommany. Sometimes, rom and romani are spelled with a double r, i. e., rrom and rromani, particularly in Romania in order to distinguish from the Romanian endonym (romni). This is well established in Romani itself, since it represents a phoneme (// also written as and rh) which in some Romani dialects has remained different from the one written with a single r. Roma is a term primarily used in political contexts to refer to the Romani people as a whole. Still, some subgroups of Romani do not self-identify as Roma, therefore some scholars avoid using the term Roma as not all Romani subgroups accept the term. Because all Romanies use the word Romani as an adjective, the term began to be used as a noun for the entire ethnic group. Today, the term Romani is used by some organizations, including the United Nations and the US Library of Congress.
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