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A halogen lamp (also called tungsten halogen, quartz-halogen, and quartz iodine lamp) is an incandescent lamp consisting of a tungsten filament sealed in a compact transparent envelope that is filled with a mixture of an inert gas and a small amount of a halogen, such as iodine or bromine. The combination of the halogen gas and the tungsten filament produces a halogen-cycle chemical reaction, which redeposits evaporated tungsten on the filament, increasing its life and maintaining the clarity of the envelope. This allows the filament to operate at a higher temperature than a standard incandescent lamp of similar power and operating life, this also produces light with higher luminous efficacy and color temperature. The small size of halogen lamps permits their use in compact optical systems for projectors and illumination. The small glass envelope may be enclosed in a much larger outer glass bulb, which has a lower temperature, protects the inner bulb from contamination, and makes the bulb mechanically more similar to a conventional lamp. Standard and halogen incandescent bulbs are much less efficient than LED and compact fluorescent lamps, and therefore have been or are being phased out in many places. A carbon filament lamp using chlorine to prevent darkening of the envelope was patented in 1882, and chlorine-filled 'NoVak' lamps were marketed in 1892. The use of iodine was proposed in a 1933 patent, which also described the cyclic redeposition of tungsten back onto the filament. In 1959, General Electric patented a practical lamp using iodine. = Phase-out =In 2009, the EU and other European countries began a phase-out of inefficient bulbs. The production and importation of directional mains-voltage halogen bulbs was banned on 1 September 2016 and non-directional halogen bulbs followed on 1 September 2018. Australia banned halogen light bulbs in late 2021 as the original target date of September 2020 to keep the policy in line with the European Union.
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