Smoking GIFs Cliparts
Nicotine is a chiral alkaloid that is naturally produced in the nightshade family of plants (most predominantly in tobacco and Duboisia hopwoodii) and is widely used recreationally as a stimulant and anxiolytic. As a pharmaceutical drug, it is used for smoking cessation to relieve withdrawal symptoms. Nicotine acts as a receptor agonist at most nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), except at two nicotinic receptor subunits (nAChR9 and nAChR10) where it acts as a receptor antagonist. Nicotine constitutes approximately 0. 63. 0% of the dry weight of tobacco. Nicotine is also present at ppb-concentrations in the edible family Solanaceae, including potatoes, tomatoes, and eggplants, though sources disagree on whether this has any biological significance to human consumers. It functions as an antiherbivore chemical, consequently, nicotine was widely used as an insecticide in the past, and neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, are some of the most effective and widely used insecticides. Nicotine is highly addictive unless used in slow-release forms. Animal research suggests that monoamine oxidase inhibitors present in tobacco smoke may enhance nicotine's addictive properties. Tobacco with reduced nicotine (denicotinized tobacco) acutely reduces nicotine withdrawal, raises striatal dopamine and is also investigated as add on therapy to standard therapy to quit smoking. An average cigarette yields about 2 mg of absorbed nicotine. The estimated lower dose limit for fatal outcomes is 5001, 000 mg of ingested nicotine for an adult (6. 513 mg/kg).
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