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In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements (in a natural language), called the premises or premisses (both spellings are acceptable), intended to determine the degree of truth of another statement, the conclusion. The logical form of an argument in a natural language can be represented in a symbolic formal language, and independently of natural language formally defined 'arguments' can be made in math and computer science. Logic is the study of the forms of reasoning in arguments and the development of standards and criteria to evaluate arguments. Deductive arguments can be valid or sound: in a valid argument, premisses necessitate the conclusion, even if one or more of the premises is false and the conclusion is false, in a sound argument, true premises necessitate a true conclusion. Inductive arguments, by contrast, can have different degrees of logical strength: the stronger or more cogent the argument, the greater the probability that the conclusion is true, the weaker the argument, the lesser that probability. The standards for evaluating non-deductive arguments may rest on different or additional criteria than truthfor example, the persuasiveness of so-called 'indispensability claims' in transcendental arguments, the quality of hypotheses in retroduction, or even the disclosure of new possibilities for thinking and acting. Etymology The Latin root arguere (to make bright, enlighten, make known, prove, etc. ) is from Proto-Indo-European argu-yo-, suffixed form of arg- (to shine, white). Formal and informal Informal arguments as studied in informal logic, are presented in ordinary language and are intended for everyday discourse. Formal arguments are studied in formal logic (historically called symbolic logic, more commonly referred to as mathematical logic today) and are expressed in a formal language. Informal logic emphasizes the study of argumentation, formal logic emphasizes implication and inference.
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