Windmills GIFs Cliparts
A windmill is a structure that converts wind power into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades, specifically to mill grain (gristmills), but the term is also extended to windpumps, wind turbines and other applications. The term wind engine is sometimes used to describe such devices. Windmills were used throughout the high medieval and early modern periods, the horizontal or panemone windmill first appeared in Greater Iran during the 9th century, the vertical windmill in northwestern Europe in the 12th century. Regarded as an icon of Dutch culture, there are approximately 1, 000 windmills in the Netherlands today. Forerunners Hero of Alexandria (Heron) in first-century Roman Egypt described what appears to be a wind-driven wheel to power a machine. His description of a wind-powered organ is not a practical windmill, but was either an early wind-powered toy, or a design concept for a wind-powered machine that may or may not have been a working device, as there is ambiguity in the text and issues with the design. Another early example of a wind-driven wheel was the prayer wheel, which is believed to have been first used in Tibet and China, though there is uncertainty over the date of its first appearance, which could have been either c. 400, the 7th century, or after the 9th century. Horizontal windmills The first practical windmills were panemone windmills, using sails that rotated in a horizontal plane, around a vertical axis. Made of six to 12 sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind grain or draw up water. These windmills are recorded by Persian geographer Estakhri in the 9th century as being operated in Khorasan (Eastern Iran and Western Afghanistan). The authenticity of an earlier anecdote of a windmill involving the 7th-century caliph Umar (634644) is questioned on the grounds that it is recorded only in the 10th century.
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