Kaleidoscopes GIFs Cliparts
A kaleidoscope () is an optical instrument with two or more reflecting surfaces (or mirrors) tilted to each other at an angle, so that one or more (parts of) objects on one end of the mirrors are seen as a regular symmetrical pattern when viewed from the other end, due to repeated reflection. The reflectors are usually enclosed in a tube, often containing on one end a cell with loose, colored pieces of glass or other transparent (and/or opaque) materials to be reflected into the viewed pattern. Rotation of the cell causes motion of the materials, resulting in an ever-changing view being presented. Etymology Coined by its Scottish inventor David Brewster, 'kaleidoscope' is derived from the Ancient Greek word (kalos), 'beautiful, beauty', (eidos), 'that which is seen: form, shape' and (skope), 'to look to, to examine', hence 'observation of beautiful forms. ' It was first published in the patent that was granted on July 10, 1817. Multiple reflection by two or more reflecting surfaces has been known since antiquity and was described as such by Giambattista della Porta in his Magia Naturalis (15581589). In 1646, Athanasius Kircher described an experiment with a construction of two mirrors, which could be opened and closed like a book and positioned in various angles, showing regular polygon figures consisting of reflected aliquot sectors of 360. Mr. Bradley's New Improvements in Planting and Gardening (1717) described a similar construction to be placed on geometrical drawings to show an image with multiplied reflection. However, an optimal configuration that produces the full effects of the kaleidoscope was not recorded before 1815. In 1814, Sir David Brewster conducted experiments on light polarization by successive reflections between plates of glass and first noted 'the circular arrangement of the images of a candle round a center, and the multiplication of the sectors formed by the extremities of the plates of glass'.
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